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International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences (IJPHCS)
Open Access e-journal ISSN : 2289-7577


Haliza T, Normastura A.R, Azizah Y.



Background: Down syndrome (DS) children were found to have dental anomalies and lack of manual dexterity that compromised their effective tooth brushing practice. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies, facial profile abnormality and oral hygiene (OH) status in DS compared to normal children.

Materials and Methods: A comparative cross sectional study was conducted on 32 DS children from special class as a case and 40 normal children from primary schools in Kota Bharu, Kelantan as a comparative group. Children aged 7 to 12 years old were included. Those on crown or orthodontic treatment and had impaired manual dexterity were excluded. Demographic data and examination for dental anomalies (morphology, number, alignment), facial profile and OH status were done. Data were analysed using PASW version 18.0.

Result: The prevalence of anomalies (morphology, number, alignment) and facial profile abnormality was higher in DS [6.3% (95% CI: -2.12-, 14.7); p=0.581, 50% (95% CI: 32.7, 67.3); p=0.001, 71.9% (95% CI: 56.3, 87.5); p=0.04] and 21.9% (95% CI: 7.6, 36.2); p=0.199] respectively compared to normal children. The prevalence of poor OH in DS was higher, 87.5% (95% CI: 76.0, 99.0) compared to normal children; p=0.002. The mean (SD) of OHI-S was significantly more in DS, 1.64 (0.11) compared to normal children, 1.12 (0.07); p= <0.001. 

Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of DS children having dental anomalies, facial profile abnormality and poor OH compared to normal children. Parents and healthcare workers should play effective role in providing oral health care especially for DS children. 

Keywords: Down syndrome, dental anomalies, oral hygiene, mal-alignment

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