THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC, BODY MASS INDEX AND MEDICAL FACTORS RELATED TO GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS (GDM): FINDINGS FROM THE NATIONAL HEALTH MORBIDITY SURVEY (NHMS) 2016
Background: GDM is shown to be closely linked with different adverse pregnancy outcomes both at the fetal and maternal level including an increased risk of caesarean-section delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, preeclampsia and macrosomia. This study aimed to determine the sociodemographic, body mass index and medical factors linked with gestational diabetes mellitus in Malaysia.
Materials and Methods: Data from NHMS 2016 was used and a cross-sectional design was implemented with a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. This study employed descriptive statistics whereby the focus was on the percentage of each variable. Complex sample logistic regression was used to identify factors linked with GDM at both univariate and multivariable levels. The data were presented as adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI and with p values (<0.05)
Result: The overall prevalence of GDM from this survey was 12.4% (1349). Results from multivariable analyses showed that there were significant associations between GDM and age group of 25-49 years old (p<0.001), Malay ethnicity (p=0.024), hypertensive medical history (p=0.003) and body mass index of both overweight and obesity (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Early screening and proper management of this group should be done continuously by healthcare personnel. This study offers crucial information for practitioners and policymakers to take effective measures to address the issue highlighted and to improve the GDM-related care for reproductive aged women. Future studies on effects of GDM on live long obesity and non-communicable diseases should be conducted to address these important issues.
Keywords: Gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational weight gain, National Health and Morbidity Survey 2016