A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON BACTERIAL AETIOLOGY OF VENTILATOR-ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA IN SUNGAI BULOH HOSPITAL, MALAYSIA
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection diagnosed in intensive care units (ICU) worldwide. VAP is an infection that occurs in an ICU patient more than 48 hours after endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. This study aims to describe the aetiological agents causing bacterial ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was performed on all patients with VAP that were admitted to the ICU at Sungai Buloh Hospital that fit the inclusion criteria from January 2012 to December 2014. The data used for this study was reviewed after retrieving it from the information system (EHIS) of Sungai Buloh Hospital.
Result: The results showed that Acinetobacter spp. were the most common pathogens isolated (33%) and 83.9% were multi-drug resistant (MDR). A high proportion (75%) of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Conclusion: The finding of the study can be used to guide clinicians in the management of patients with VAP. The pitfalls in using empiric antibiotics for suspicion of VAP are the potential for antibiotic overuse, the emergence of resistance, unnecessary adverse effects, and potential toxicity. The major goals of VAP management are early and, appropriate antibiotics in adequate doses followed by de-escalation based on microbiological culture results and the clinical response of the patient.
Keywords: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), Bacterial Aetiology, pathogens, multi-drug resistant (MDR)