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International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences (IJPHCS)
Open Access e-journal ISSN : 2289-7577


Marzani M.Y., Rosliza A.M., Suriani I., Salmiah M.S.


Background:  Smoking cessation programs have been widely implemented especially at the Malaysian Ministry of Health's facilities to help smokers reduce their smoking habits and slowly stop smoking. This unhealthy practice is the cause of many diseases as there are more than 6000 poisons in cigarette smoke that can give implication to environmental and health impact to those around smokers. This paper aims to explore the effectiveness of peer support intervention in improving the knowledge, attitudes and motivation (KAM) of allied health male trainee smokers in Malaysian training institutes.

Materials and Methods: A cluster randomisation control trial was conducted among male smoker trainees at six training institutes involving 324 respondents. Data on knowledge, attitude, motivation, socio-demographic characteristics factors were collected using the self-administers questionnaire. Evaluation was performed three times during baseline, three and six months to see the differences between intervention and control groups. Repeated measure Anova and Chi-square test were used in data analysis. This study utilised Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) to handle the clustering effects.

Result: The mean value of the knowledge intervention group at baseline was 10.87 (2.39), 12.38 (2.24) on the second evaluation and 13.88 (2.24) on the third evaluation, whereas the mean for the control group was 10.44 (2.27), 10.36 (1.88) on the second evaluation and 10.47 (2.16) on the third evaluation. For the attitude variable, the mean value for the intervention group at baseline was 9.12 (1.25), followed by 10.19 (0.94) on the second evaluation and 10.59 (0.85) on the third evaluation. Meanwhile, the control group recorded a mean value at baseline of 7.71 (1.39), followed by 8.25 (1.52) on the second evaluation and 8.74 (1.83) on the third evaluation. The mean value of knowledge and attitudes was always higher than the control group throughout the baseline to the third evaluation. There was a significant difference in the mean value for knowledge and attitude between groups based on time with a p-value <0.05. The mean value for motivation in the intervention group at baseline was 1.43 (0.49), whereas 1.15 (0.35) on the second evaluation, and 1.08 (0.27) on the third evaluation; meanwhile in the control group, the mean at baseline was 1.71 (0.46), followed by 1.46 (0.50) on the second evaluation and 1.31 (0.47) on the third evaluation. There was no significant difference in the mean value for motivation between groups based on time with a p-value> 0.05.

Conclusion: This study found that good knowledge, favourable attitudes and good motivation are the key drivers of a smoker's success in quitting smoking. The approach used to help smokers is very important in determining the success of a program. Therefore, those who conducted smoking cessation programs can take the opportunity to apply this method in helping smokers to improve their knowledge, attitudes and motivation for changing their  behaviour.

Keywords: smoking cessation, peer motivation, Allied Health Trainee, knowledge, attitudes, motivation

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