ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT ON GROUND WATER AND AIR OF LIMESTONE IN GRENDEN VILLAGE EAST JAVA, INDONESIA
Background: Grenden is a village at Jember, East Java, Indonesia that have limestone area, which also have a lot of industrial and quarry limestone. However, in spite of remarkable contribution towards economic development, some adverse impacts have been noticed such as the health risk among the inhabitant around limestone areas, because limestone contains of chemical which largely contains of calcite (CaCO3). The health risk of CaCO3 exposure from ground water and air could be studied applying Environmental Health Risk Assessment (EHRA). The purpose of this research was to observ environmental health risk from ground water and air that probably contain limestone in Grenden Village.
Materials and Methods: The method of this research was descriptive observational, that have two kind of sample which is environment and human. Environmental sample in this research is 32 well’s water of inhabitant and ambient air sample. Each ground water sample and ambient air sample will be measured their hardness (CaCO3) parameter and Total Suspended Particle (TSP) content. Human sample (respondent) was selested from inhabitant whose well water was taken and near the location of air sample. Respondents were subjected to anthropometric surveys for body weight, ingestion rate, exposure times, exposure frequency and duration time.
Result: The averange of water hardness (CaCO3) value was 207,906 mg/L with maximum 530 mg/L and minimum 111 mg/L. While, TSP content in ambient air at point 1, 2 and 3 are 0.024 mg/m3, 0.054 mg/m3 and 0.113 mg/m3 respectively. Risk characterization on population showed that RQs of CaCO3 exposure through ingestion was greater than one (RQs > 1), and ECR of TSP exposure through inhalation was greater than one (ECR < 1). Risk management could be done by reducing CaCO3 concentration on well water until 1.990125 L/day and, reducing TSP concentration until 0.000621 mg/m3 and exposure duration until 0.27331 year.
Conclusion: The population at limestone area in Grenden Village which exposed with CaCO3 through ground water and ambient air was at risk. The Risk level of non carcinogenic exposure of ground water was greater than one (RQs>1) and carcinogenic exposure of TSP in ambient air was greater than 10-4 (ECR).
Keywords: CaCO3, Total Suspended Solid, limestone area, risk assessment,