ASSESSMENT OF BONE MARROW ACTIVITY OF ANEMIC SAUDI PATIENTS ATTENDING KING ABDULAZIZ MEDICAL CITY, RIYADH, SAUDI ARABIA
Background: Anemia is a worldwide known hematological disorder that is characterized by a lack of red blood cells (RBC) or hemoglobin; there are more than four hundred types of anemia with several causes and many structures, all of them are categorized according to three features, which are blood loss, decreased RBC production in bone marrow, and their abnormal destruction.
Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the bone marrow activity to find the types of anemia associated with the failure of this activity, and the types that are related to active bone marrow.
Methodology: This is a retrospective chart review study conducted to assess the bone marrow response to anemia among anemic patients seeking consultation at the King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia throughout the year of 2016. The participants in this study included 322 patients (37 infants, 105 children, 22 youth, 112 adult and 46 elderly). The gender distribution was 152 males and 170 females. The selection criteria were based on presence of anemia. Non-anemic patients were excluded. Complete blood count (CBC) and reticulocyte production index (RPI) results were used to assess the bone marrow response to anemia.
Results: The results of CBC and RPI showed 83 (25.8%) anemia with effective bone marrow response and 239 (74.2%) anemia with ineffective bone marrow response. With regard to gender, the results showed 41 (27%) anemia with effective bone marrow response in males and 42 (24.7%) in females, 111 (73%) anemia with ineffective bone marrow response in males and 138 (75.3%) in females.
Conclusion: The anemia with ineffective bone marrow response was highly frequent in the study sample, while the anemia with effective bone marrow response was lower. Regarding the gender group, ineffective bone marrow response pattern is more common among females, while the ineffective bone marrow response pattern was found to be with a high frequency in males.Keywords: Anemia, Bone marrow, Reticulocyte, Red blood cells.