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International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences (IJPHCS)
Open Access e-journal ISSN : 2289-7577


Emilia Z.A., Azmeera Syuhada Jamil, K. Karmegam, S.N.S. Ismail



Background: Issues pertaining to hazard identification and Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) risk management in industrial settings have been often explored and reported in literature. Personnel who work in close proximity with animals are exposed to specific occupational safety and health risks uncommon to existing industries. To minimize these associated risks, there is a need to identify the specific risk factors in this sector. There is a lack of published literature which focuses on this group of workers. This paper aims to provide a traditional literature review on OSH risk associated with animal workers. The outcome of this study will help in determining the control methods required to improve OSH performance and ensure the safety and health of workers within this group is protected.

Materials and Methods: This study uses the methods of literature search for review. Existing literatures in English languages from year 2008 to 2018 were identified. The database search was inclusive of Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar and PubMed. In total, four studies from met the inclusion criteria for this review.

Result: Of the four studies, one study was from Australia, one study from India, one study from the United States of America (USA) and the other one from Tanzania. Overall, all of the reviews showed that the workplace environment for animal workers do perceive risks and it shows how important of addressing safety and health at workplace. The frequency of injuries and illnesses reported show a greater need for the inclusion of safety and health elements in each zoo programs. 

Conclusion: Consistent evidence indicated that knowledge and attitude on safety and health should be emphasized promptly and adequately for animal workers. It is due to the risk perceived by the animal workers at their workplace as it involves all top managements and employees in decision-making process within the organization as their liability to keep employees from any harm or injuries. Therefore, the training on risk exposures to improve and ultimately protect the workers from any safety and health risks is essential to be implement in zoo programs to assess, evaluate thus reducing the unnecessary risk of animal workers. It is also suitable to be implement in various industries and a worthwhile study to identify the risk exposure to the animal workers.

Keywords: occupational health and safety, zoo, veterinary workers, workplace-related illness and injury