PUBLIC HEALTH IMPACT OF NATURAL DISASTER: SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
Background: In explaining the public health impact of disaster, it is insufficient to describe a large occurrence event just at individual level. Socio-ecological approach is able to illustrate the impact of disaster across multiple levels of involvement. The aim of this review is to comprehensively evaluate the impact of natural disaster to public health according to the socio-ecological perspective.
Materials and Methods: Literature search was done using multiple search engines. Socio-ecological theory was used as the framework to guide the search. Articles included are those published within 10 years in English and original articles accessible at full length. Review articles were excluded. Findings from the articles were then mapped according to the layer of the socio-ecological framework.
Result: The multi-dimensional impact of natural disaster to public health is clearly demonstrated through the socio-ecological perspective. Disaster exposes individuals and population to develop different kind of diseases. Individuals who contract the diseases will lose capability to work and unemployment thus will also affect other members of the family. Disaster also causes human migration and resettlement; which may facilitate the spread of infectious diseases. Increase of disease prevalence will then increase burden to the health service system.
Conclusion: Socio-ecological approach allows us to see multiple public health aspect of natural disaster impact towards the population. This approach will allow intervention and policy that will be develops to be more holistic and encompasses several layers within the model itself.Keywords: natural disaster, public health, socio-ecological approach, socio-ecological, disaster impact