IMPACT OF CIGARETTE POLICIES ON SMOKING ECONOMICS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ON THE METHODS OF ASSESSMENT
Background: The importance of economics in reducing the global tobacco use is reflected in policy-related measures proposed by the WHO such as the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the MPOWER package. These policies provide a set of actions that would reduce the demand and supply of tobacco products especially by using economic tools such as raising taxes and prices of cigarettes. Various studies have been done to assess the impact of policies on smoking economics and among the methods of assessment used by researchers is cigarette consumption, price elasticities and by using the direct or indirect costs of smoking to estimate the economic burden from tobacco usage.
Objective: The objective of this paper is to conduct systematic review on methods of assessment used in determining the impact of cigarette policies on smoking economics.
Methodology: Articles were retrieved using both online databases and manual searches. Online search engines used were CINAHL, PubMed, Science Direct, and Medscape. Manual searches were conducted by looking at hardbound copies of journals, articles, thesis and dissertations. Inclusion criteria are papers with available abstracts and full articles, written in English while exclusion criteria are publications that discuss smoking economics not related to cigarette smoking policies and articles that is not an original study such as a review article.
Results and Discussion: For each of the study under review, methods of assessing smoking economics as an impact from cigarette policies are not limited to only one method per study. With regards to the methods, the reviewed literatures reveal that cigarette consumption had been used 9 times, price elasticity of demand 7 times, and economic burden 3 times. Detailed analysis on these 3 methods revealed that each method has its usage, strengths and limitations.
Conclusion: Among the methods of assessment for smoking economics include cigarette consumption, price elasticity of demand and economic burden of cigarette smoking. In choosing between these methods, it all comes down to the study objectives and authors’ preference keeping in view of each method’s strengths and limitations. While some care needs to be given to overcome the limitations, all are feasible tools to be used in assessing the smoking economics.
Keywords: ‘smoking economics’, ‘cigarette policies impact and ‘assessment’