THE INFLUENCE OF MATERNAL GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS STATUS AND FOETAL SEX ON INFANT OUTCOMES: A REGISTRY AUDIT
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with infant morbidities and mortality. Male foetal sex is another risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. This study aimed to describe the proportion of infant outcomes with maternal GDM status, and to determine whether both maternal GDM status and foetal sex had influence on macrosomia and preterm birth.
Materials and Methods: This was a review and audit of Birth Registry for year 2015. Total of 1077 infants born to GDM mothers and non-GDM mothers were selected via simple random sampling with a ratio of 1:2. Multiple logistic regression models were built to determine the association of maternal GDM status, foetal sex with macrosomia, and preterm birth.
Result: A higher proportion of macrosomia, preterm birth and stillbirth were found among infants born to GDM mothers. Male foetal sex (AOR 2.41, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.74, p=0.010) and GDM status (AOR 4.09, 95% CI: 2.20, 7.58, p<0.001) were significantly associated with macrosomia, but not with preterm birth.
Conclusion: Focused antenatal services should be offered to GDM mothers carrying male foetuses since male foetal sex and GDM status were predictors for macrosomia.Keywords: foetal sex, GDM, macrosomia, preterm birth