METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN HEALTH ECONOMIC EVALUATION
It is undeniable that there is an increasing trend in the healthcare expenditure worldwide due to various factors. Despite this fact, there is limited resource for healthcare and the sustainability is questionable. In line with this, a number of measures have been developed to ensure the health care resources are allocated and distributed efficiently. One of the measures to ensure the efficient resource allocation is by assisting policy makers in decision making through health economic evaluation. The health economic evaluation methods include cost minimisation analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-benefit analysis and cost-utility analysis. However, the decision to conduct these analyses depends on many factors and researchers should be well versed with the characteristics, strengths and limitations of each method. Hence, this article is aimed to analyse the characteristic of these health economic evaluation methodology in health care; namely the cost minimisation analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-benefit analysis and cost-utility analysis and to identify the strengths, weaknesses, issues and challenges related to them. A literature search on information related to health economic evaluation methods were conducted. Articles, journals and related publications from online databases including PubMed, CINAHL and Google Scholar as well as hardcopy publications were used for the materials search. This article used logic matrix framework to analyse the different methodological approaches in full health economic evaluation. The similarities, differences, strengths, limitations and public health perspective between different methods were analysed and discussed. Articles, journals and related publications from online databases and hardcopy publications were used in the analysis. Relevant issues and challenges of each method were discussed. Based on various methodological approaches in the health economic evaluations, there are a number of differences, such as the valuation outcomes, effectiveness measures, strengths and limitations related to each method. In conclusion, the suitability and appropriateness of each method in evaluating public health interventions is also very much dependent on various circumstances, such as the cost and consequences of the interventions.Keywords: Health economic evaluation, economic evaluation method, economic evaluation approach.