PREVALENCE OF DYSLIPIDEMIA AND ATHEROGENIC RISK AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETIC OUTPATIENTS IN GHANA
Background: Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which in turn contribute 68% of mortality among type 2 diabetics. The study aimed to determine dyslipidemia and atherogenic index, among Type 2 diabetic outpatients in Ghana.
Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 152 participants. Anthropometric and biochemical indices (including glycated hemoglobin and lipid profile) were determined.
Result: Thirty-seven (24.3%) participants were males and 115 (75.7%) were females. Prevalence of hyperglycemia was 74.3%. The prevalence of single dyslipidemia, combined dyslipidemia and mixed dyslipidemia were 63.8%, 15.8%, and 1.3% respectively. Also, 35.3% of the participants had high coronary risk and 5.3% had high atherosclerotic risk. Coronary risk was strongly associated with Total Cholesterol (TC), (r=0.690, p< 0.0001) and Low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C), (r=0.783, p< 0.0001), while atherosclerotic risk correlated with Triglycerides (TG), (r=0.817, p< 0.0001) and Very low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL-C), (r=0.817, p< 0.0001). Regression analyses revealed that a point increase in TC was associated with 2.6-folds increased odds of coronary disease risk (OR= 2.6, 95% CI=1.9-3.7, p< 0.0001), TG was associated with 2-folds higher coronary risk (OR= 2.5, 95% CI= 1.3-4.8, p=0.004), and LDL-C was associated with 5- folds higher coronary disease risk (OR= 4.9, 95% CI=2.9-8.1, p< 0.0001) among participants.
Conclusion: Uncontrolled blood glucose and atherogenic dyslipidemia was common among these diabetics, were significantly associated with high coronary and atherosclerotic risk. Management of diabetes in Ghana needs a critical look at to increase effectiveness and reduce the burden of the disease.Keywords: Dyslipidemia, atherogenic index, Type 2 diabetes Mellitus