A SCHOOL BASED INTERVENTION TO REDUCE CVD RISK FACTORS: BASELINE DATA FROM A BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR CVD RISKS PREVENTION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN BATANG PADANG DISTRICT, PERAK, A CLUSTER RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Introduction: Globally, CVD was responsible for 17.5 million deaths or 46.2% of NCD deaths in 2012 while in Malaysia, CVD is the leading cause of death over the last 40 years with reported increasing trend in the prevalence of CVD risk factors in both adults and adolecents.
Methods: An analytic cross sectional study design was conducted at baseline involving 13-17 years old students in selected secondary schools in Batang Padang District, Perak as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection on socio-demographic, dietary habit, smoking, self-esteem and CVD knowledge while weight, height and blood pressure was measured using standardised medical equipment. Analysis for baseline data was done using SPSS version 22. Outcome variables were compared at baseline. Descriptive results were presented as mean, frequency and percentage. Inferential statistics was utilized where appropriate.
Results: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10.9% and 5.5% respectively. The combined prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension was 10.6% (systolic bp) and 9.9% (diastolic bp). At baseline, 42.4% of the respondents reported low level of physical activity while 5.9% are regular smokers. Overweight and obesity contributed to higher mean Systolic (F=226.55, p=0.0001) and Diastolic BP (F=144.71,p=0.0001) while percentage of those with low level of physical activity were more in the overweight and obese respondents (F=538.71, p=0.0001). We found no difference in the main socio-demographic characteristics at baseline. We found higher baseline intake of high calories low nutrition food (t= -5.277,p=0.0001), vegetables (t= 3.416,p=0.001), sugar intake (t= -4.959,p=0.0001) and sugared non-carbonated drinks intake (t= -4.947, p=0.0001) in the Control group but no difference in carbonated drinks and alcohol intake. The mean self-esteem score (t= -1.97,p=0.049) and CVD knowledge score (t=-2.628,p=0.009) was higher in the Control group.
Conclusion: The increasing trend of CVD risk factors among the adolescents in Malaysia is worrying. An effective intervention targeting to reduce all CVD risk factors among adolescents in Malaysia is needed to help reduce the overall prevalence of CVD in adulthood. .Keywords: CVD risk factors, behavioral modification intervention, adolescents, schools