IMPACT OF UNIVERSAL SALT IODIZATION PROGRAMME TOWARDS IODINE STATUS OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN SARAWAK
Background: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is a public health issue in Sarawak. This study aimed to determine the present status of IDD among first trimester pregnant women in Sarawak after a decade of implementation of USI.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of IDD involved 30 Maternal and Child Health Clinics throughout Sarawak with 750 pregnant women in the selected clinics were randomly selected via systematic sampling. Socio-demographic data, urinary iodine sample, thyroid size examination, and household salt were also collected. Further associations and odds were analysed using Krusskal-Wallis, Chi square and Logistic regression.
Result: The prevalence of goiter rate (TGR) was found to be 1.0% (n=10). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) for Sarawak was 123.9μg/L (IQR 56.5-192.1μg/L) which indicates an iodine deficiency. Median UIC for both Sri Aman and Mukah had achieved adequacy of iodine intake which were 150.7 (IQR 128.2-235.8) and 170.2 (IQR 119.1-264.7) respectively. Sarawak divisions and ethnicity were found significant association with UIC.
Conclusion: USI programme should be continue as has improved IDD in Sarawak despite majority of pregnant women in Sarawak still having iodine insufficiency. Programme manager should anticipate to location who has UIC lower than <100 μg/L.
Keywords: Iodine; pregnant women; urine iodine; salt